Kemal Atatürk  (or alternatively composed as Kamâl Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha [a] until 1934, typically described as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; [b] 1881 [c]-- 10 November 1938), was a Turkish field marshal, advanced statesman, author, and the creator of the Republic of Turkey, functioning as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. His good-hearted dictatorship undertook sweeping progressive reforms, which updated Turkey into a secular, industrial nation.Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories became called Kemalism. Due to his military and political achievements, Atatürk is concerned according to studies as one of the best leaders of the 20th century.
Atatürk came to prominence for his role in protecting the Ottoman Turkish success at the Fight of Gallipoli (1915) throughout World War I. Following the defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, he led the Turkish National Movement, which resisted mainland Turkey's partition among the triumphant Allied powers. Establishing a provisionary federal government in the present-day Turkish capital Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies, thus emerging victorious from what was later on referred to as the Turkish War of Independence. He consequently continued to eliminate the decrepit Ottoman Empire and proclaimed the structure of the Turkish Republic in its place.
As the president of the newly formed Turkish Republic, Atatürk started a rigorous program of political, economic, and cultural reforms with the ultimate aim of building a modern, progressive and secular nation-state. He made primary education complimentary and required, opening thousands of new schools all over the country. He also presented the Latin-based Turkish alphabet, replacing the old Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Turkish women got equal civil and political rights throughout Atatürk's presidency ahead of numerous Western countries.  In particular, females were offered voting rights in regional elections by Act no. 1580 on 3 April 1930 and a few years later on, in 1934, complete universal suffrage, earlier than most other democracies in the world.
His federal government performed a policy of Turkicisation, trying to produce an get more info uniform and unified nation. Under Atatürk, non-Turkish minorities were pushed to speak Turkish in public, non-Turkish toponyms and last names of minorities needed to be altered to Turkish renditions. The Turkish Parliament gave him the surname Atatürk in 1934, which means "Father of the Turks", in acknowledgment of the role he played in developing the modern-day Turkish Republic.  He died on 10 November 1938 at Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, at the age of 57 he was prospered as President by his long-time Prime Minister İsmet İnönü  and was honored with a state funeral service. His renowned mausoleum in Ankara, built and opened in 1953, is surrounded by a park called the Peace Park in honor of his famous expression "Peace in the house, Peace on the planet".
In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk's birth, his memory was honoured by the United Nations and UNESCO, which stated it The Atatürk Year in the World and embraced the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial, explaining him as "the leader of the first struggle offered versus colonialism and imperialism" and a "exceptional promoter of the sense of understanding in between peoples and resilient peace in between the countries of the world and that he worked all his life for the development of consistency and cooperation in between peoples without distinction".   Atatürk is celebrated by lots of memorials and locations named in his honor throughout Turkey and the world. Eleftherios Venizelos, former Prime Minister of Greece, forwarded Atatürk's name for the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize.